Criteria for determining how urban settlement was created
City of Erseke is located in southeast Albania, 45 km south of the city of Korca. Erseka is the capital of the district of Cologne. Situated at an altitude of about 1040 m above sea level. The town Erseka thought to be created around the XVIII century, and its features as urban settlement, in my opinion clearly expressed during the early twentieth century. In the 1929 data, Erseka has a total of 28 houses, of which 8 were Orthodox and Muslim faith 20. It is mentioned in the writings of Durham as a small center and in the writings of Mithat Frasher, as a location for the International Boundary Commission. Erseka surface is 6.1 km2.
The first criteria for determining both urban habitat is the function of this city as a liaison for commercial relations between the city of Korca in north and cities like Leskoviku, Gjirokastra and Konica in the south. Erseka served as residence, which over time have settled the first inhabitants of the neighborhood of agriculturist. Mainly trading caravans passed on a road near the town of Erseke.
The second criterion has been setting the administrative status. At the time of the Ottoman conquest of the city has been Erseke administrative and military center of the area. On top of it stood “kajmekami”. In 1927, he was appointed Erseka center of Cologne and became the municipality. In this time opened shops, private local, craftsmen and merchants increased.
Periods of urban development
Regarding this issue in the paper I have identified three main periods for urban developments represent different features. The first period of the creation of the city until 1944, the second stage in the years 1945-1990, and the third period from 1991 to 2016.
The first period of the creation of the city until 1944, is identified in this paper as the first period this regard after 3 subsystems represent significant volatility in their features. For example, concerning the subsystem functional originally the main economic activity was mainly trade, then this space received additional features and switched to a stage where economic development was the administrative – commercial, and developed businesses and shops first and in years end of this period economic development and employment were largely relied on employment in the administration.
The second period from 1945 – 1990 period is recorded separately as it mainly based on population and development in physical subsystem. Regarding the former have a population growth of 800% from 1944 to 1970, while the subsystem physical can say that the city expanded more in terms of area, about 150%, in all directions but rather to north and south following the national road toll Korce – Leskovik.
The third period from 1991 – 2016, is characterized population developments and functional subsystem. In this period we have migration and mass emigration from the city. Physical subsystem suffers almost no changes.
Period of creation until 1944
Before 1944 there was not any kind of industry. In the period 1920 – 1924 in Cologne had 4 hotels and 2 guesthouses.
The first data on the population of the city of Erseke those of 1928 and according to a book published by the Secretary General of the Council of Ministers of the time Teki Selenica said that after leaving the “andartet” Greeks from Albania southeastern city of Erseke had just 27 houses and 112 inhabitants. It is not known exactly how many people had before this year but it is known that as a result of the war some residents fled or were killed. Below is illustrated with photos of Erseke city in the ’20s.
As regards structural and spatial changes in this period, we can say that they were too diverse. Land in urban area was mainly used for farming, and very few other activities. Average number of buildings in this period ranged between 15-20 residential buildings on average, while as building services 1-2 buildings. Apartments were mostly lower and most of them were with 2 floors. Roofs of buildings were relatively steep, as a result of climate change. They were built with stone boards. In the center buildings were close to each – other, and with the departure towards the periphery distance between them was increasing. The streets were wide and natural foundation.
In this period of study I have not noticed a strong correlation between the three subsystems. Here I found a linkage between the physical and functional subsystem. This is because the distribution of housing typology and were depending on the economic activities of the period. But, I can say that the main role in this period has been functional subsystem which has been the main driver of development of the city.
The period from 1945 – 1990
In 1958 Ersekë opened high school “Petro Nini LUARASI”. In the city of Erseka in 1962 is created and acted Cologne District Historical Museum.
Erseka liberation front had about 300 inhabitants, while in 1970 there were about 2500 people. Regarding the urban population in 1970 it was 23%, including the city of Erseka and Leskovik. While the city of Erseka 1970 was 13:35% urban population, the city of Leskovik figure was 9.65%.
Ersekë in 1945 there was only one small plant with 10 telephone numbers, which make the district connection with other cities.
According to 1970 in the town of Erseka and Leskovik two urban centers in the district of Cologne, until this year had 2 fruit workshop, 5 alcohol workshop, 2 pastry shop and 11 dairies. Up to 1970 in the district of Cologne had 130 commercial units, of which 57 in urban areas.
The period from 1990 to today
City of Erseke has 6.8% of the total urban population of the region, according to data from 2001. In 2011 the population was 3746 inhabitants. Of these 613 people or 16.36% belong to the age group 0-14 years, 2572 people or 68.65% belong to the age group 15-64 years or the active urban population and 561 people or 14.97% are aged 65+ years. Total city has about 1169 families according to the 2011 Census.
Total length of road network is 17.8 km, with 10 km are asphalt, ballast 5.9 km, 1.9 km without ballast. According to data has Erseke city road network density of 2.9 km / km2. In the city of Parade, the road network is presented in 56.2% of his type “of asphalt, and is 25.1% higher than the regional average is 31.1%.
As regards the economic structure of the city has as main activities Erseke light industry and wood processing. According to data from the regional directorate of the tax, Korca branch in the city of Erseka, licensed businesses, the primary sub-sector, a total of 2. 1 in sub agriculture -1 in the and beekeeping. Secondary sub-sector are: 1 business electro – magnetic, mechanical 3 businesses, 11 businesses building materials, food 22, 2 textile and garment enterprises, 13 and 1 wood processing industry of paper, packaging and printing press. In the tertiary sector Erseke city has 4.7% of the specific weight of the total regional tertiary sector. Retail urban district of Cologne occupies 41.1%. Regarding the tertiary sector has a total of 292 businesses in this sector, according to data from 2009, which has 112 commercial units, 31 units transportation, tourism 70 units, 69 units of services.
In the city of Erseka has 278 vehicles or 3.6% of all vehicles in the region. Of these 31 serving for transport, of which 8 for freight transport, passenger transport and 7 to 16 for passenger transport which includes taxis and vans.
As regards the architecture and distribution of housing in 2011 we have 383 buildings. Otherwise we can say also that there are 1450 flats in the city, which includes residential palace, private homes, villas, residential houses etc. joint.
According to 2011 the city has 731 fixed telephones, 294 computers and 198 Internet connection. From 1945 to 2011 the number of fixed telephones has increased by 73100%.
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